• -EN SUFFIX FOR SOME VERBS

    WHY "PROVEN" AND NOT "PROVED" ?  "GOTTEN" instead of "GOT"?

    The use of an -en suffix often varies with the function of the word and the dialect. Thus, there is a difference between "proved" and "proven" :

    - proved is the preferred past participle with have as an auxiliary.

    - proven is an adjective describing a noun; it is also a second past participle (with have), mostly in informal speech.

    In good formal English, you may write or say : "a mythical hero is a person of unproven existence" (unproven because it is an adjective). But only in common, informal speech will you say "he has proven to be reliable" (As a participle it should be : proved).This use of proven as a past participle is typical of Midwestern American English, and Scottish English.

    note the English pronunciation is [ou] like in "hope". U.S. Americans say [u:] like in "move".

    The same rule applies to drunk / drunken, got / gotten etc. and is apparently the origin of owed / own.


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